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Ettinghausen, Richard

Date born: 1906

Place born: Frankfurt am Main, Germany

Date died: 1979

Place died: Princeton, NJ

Historian of Islamic art. Ettinghausen received his Ph.D. from the University of Frankfurt in 1931 in Islamic history and art history. While pursuing his studies he worked, beginning at 24, on the excellent Islamic collection of the State Museum (Kaiser-Friedrich Museum) in Berlin between 1929 and 1931, under the direction of Ernst Kühnel (q.v.) and the collector/archaeologist Friedrich Sarre (q.v.). In 1934 at the assumption of power by the Nazis, he emigrated first to Britain and then to the United States where he joined the staff of Arthur Upham Pope (q.v.) at the Institute of Persian Art and Archaeology in New York. His research, which had previously focused on Egypt and Syria, increased to the Islamic art of Iran. During the 1937-38 academic year, he taught his first class at the Institute of Fine Art, New York University. The following fall he was appointed an associate professor at the University of Michigan. In 1944 Ettinghausen left Michigan to join the Freer Gallery, Department of Near Eastern Art, part of the Smithsonian Institution. The following year he married the art historian Elisabeth Sgalitzer. He also lectured at Princeton University. His 1941 lecture, "The Character of Islamic Art," presented at the third summer seminar in Arabic and Islamic studies at Princeton University, was published in the collection The Arab Heritage. It defined succinctly the character and qualities of the genre. Nikolaus Pevsner (q.v.), editor of the Pelican History of Art, contacted Ettinghausen to write a single-volume history of all of Islamic art. In 1959, Ettinghausen secured Oleg Grabar (q.v.) to write on the architecture and he on the independent arts. Partially due to its scope and partially because of the commitments of the two men, the project developed slowly. In 1961 he was appointed chief curator of the Freer. During his tenure at the Freer, he built the collection into one of the finest collections on Islamic art in the world. In 1966 Ettinghausen left the Freer to become Hagop Kevorkian Professor of Islamic Art at the Institute of Fine Art, New York University. Together with the Middle East historian R. Bayly Winder he founded the Kevorkian Center the same year at NYU. Three years later he added the duties of Consultative Chairman of the Islamic Department of the Metropolitan Museum of Art. At the Metropolitan, he was instrumental in installing the galleries to their sensitive arrangement. Ettinghausen died of cancer. Grabar completed the remaining portions of Ettinghausen's manuscript for the Pelican book, which appeared only in 1987 as The Art and Architecture of Islam 650-1250, the first of two volumes envisioned. The library in the Kevorkian Center is named in Ettinghausen's memory.

Ettinghausen published the groundbreaking early books in English on Islamic art. His major interest was in Islamic painting. His 1962 Arab Painting was translated into five languages by Skira publishers. Ettinghausen combined a knowledge of classical Greek and Roman authors to the Islamic sources made him aptly able to identify iconography, his major methodology. His 1950 book The Unicorn: Studies in Muslim Iconography, is a monumental source of iconographical information for scholars not only of Islamic studies but also for medieval western art. Both a Jew and an avid Islamicist, his ties to Israel found expression in his promotion of the establishment of a museum for Islamic art in Jerusalem.

Home Country: Germany/United States

Sources: Kleinbauer, W. Eugene. Modern Perspectives in Western Art History: An Anthology of 20th-Century Writings on the Visual Arts. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1971, p. 89; Porada, Edith. "Richard Ettinghausen." Yearbook of the American Philosophical Society 1979 pp.58-61; Blair, Sheila S. "Preface." The Art and Architecture of Islam: 1250-1800. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1994, p. vii; [obituaries] Cook, Joan. "Richard Ettinghausen, Teacher, A Leading Islamic Art Authority, Planned Turkish Exhibition, Taught at Princeton." New York Times April 3, 1979, p. C18

Bibliography: [complete bibliography:] "Bibliography of the Writings of Richard Ettinghausen." in Chelkowski, Peter J., ed. Studies in Art and Literature of the Near East in Honor of Richard Ettinghausen. Salt Lake City: Middle East Center, University of Utah/New York: New York University Press, 1974, pp. 5-25; "The Bobrinski Kettle: Patron and Style of an Islamic Bronze." Gazette des Beaux Arts 24, 6th series (1943): 193-208; "The Character of Islamic Art." in, The Arab Heritage. Faris, Nabih Amin, ed . Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1944; "Notes on the Lusterware of Spain." Ars Orientalis I (1954): 145-8; "Interaction and Integration in Islamic Art." in, Unity and Variety in Muslim Civilization. Grunebaum, Gustave E., ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1955; edited, Aus der Welt der islamischen Kunst: Festschrift für Ernst Kühnel zum 75. Geburtstag am 26. 10. 1957. Berlin: Gebr. Mann, 1959; Arab Painting. Geneva: Skira, 1962; From Byzantium to Sasanian Iran and the Islamic world; three modes of artistic influence. Leiden, Brill, 1972; and Evans, Bruce H. and Ackerman, Gerald M. Jean-Léon Gérôme (1824-1904). Dayton, OH: Dayton Art Institute, 1972; Islamic Art in the Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1972; "The Impact of Muslim Decorative Arts and Painting on the Arts of Europe." in, The Legacy of Islam. Schacht, Joseph, and Bosworth, C. E., eds. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1974, pp. 290-320; and MacDougall, Elisabeth B., eds. The Islamic Garden. Fourth Dumbarton Oaks Colloquium on the History of Landscape Architecture, 1974. Washington, DC: Dumbarton Oaks/Harvard University, 1976; and Yarshater, Ehsan. Highlights of Persian Art. Boulder, CO: Westview Press 1979; Islamic Art and Archaeology: Collected Papers. Berlin: Gebr. Mann,1984; and Grabar, Oleg. The Art and Architecture of Islam 650-1250. Pelican History of Art 51. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1987.