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Schapiro, Meyer [Meir until 1907]

Date born: 1904

Place Born: Siauliai, Lithuania

Date died: 1996

Place died: Greenwich Village (New York city), NY

Medieval- and Modernist art historian; Columbia University professor; one of the most important art historians of the twentieth century.  Schapiro's father was a Hebrew school teacher who had emigrated from Lithuania in 1906.  The younger Schapiro emigrated at age 3 when his father was able to send for the family.  Schapiro studied at Public School 84 and Boys High School in Brooklyn (the family lived in the Brownsville section) where his father was a twine jobber.  Both parents were socialist free-thinkers who encouraged their son to pursue many interests, among them sports, photography, and electrical gadgetry. As a child he attended a night class in art taught by John Sloan. In 1920 at age 16 he graduated from high school.  He entered Columbia College the recipient of both a Pulitzer and a Regents scholarship. He graduated from Columbia with honors in art history and philosophy at 19.  Anthropology, exemplified by Franz Boas (1858-1942) as a graduate degree interested him more than art history.  Turned down from graduate work in art history at Princeton because, as he asserted, he was Jewish, he chose Columbia.  At Columbia, Schapiro attached himself to the medievalist Ernst DeWald, who had just moved from the faculty of Princeton to Columbia.  Schapiro taught himself German, made easier because of its relation to Yiddish, and read the ground-breaking work of Wilhelm Vöge and Alois Riegl.  Vöge's work on the monumental style in 11th- and 12th-century Europe and Riegl's concept of Kunstwollen (how art reflected the lives of its native creators) were powerful initial influences.  Schapiro was equally influenced by the work of A. Kingsley Porter, the wealthy Harvard art historian who's 1923 book on Romanesque sculpture challenged the notion that France was the dominant influence of the style. Schapiro married Lillian Milgrim (1902-2006), a pediatrician, in 1928 and began lecturing at Columbia. Though Porter invited him to study under him at Harvard, Schapiro remained a Columbia, completing his dissertation under DeWald in 1929 on the sculpture of Moissac, a treatice that proved to be prophetic.  Heretofore, the Romanesque had largely been seen as a precursor to the more important medieval period, the Gothic.  Émile Mâle had argued in 1922 that the 12th-century sculpture was the birth of the Gothic tradition.  Schapiro scoured folklore, epigraphy, medieval liturgy to create an analysis of Moissac that set it as a mature work of art, replete with intentionality and an adumbration of modern art.  In 1931 portions of his dissertation appeared in the Art Bulletin and his reputation as both a medievalist and an original-thinking art historian was made.  Schapiro wrote a pointed critique in Kritische Berichte on art historians employing a schematic approach to Romanesque art, singling out Henri Focillon and Jurgis Baltrušaitis.  His Ph.D. degree was finally awarded by Columbia in 1935. Around that time, he hosted famous, informal gathering of art scholars which included Robert Goldwater, Alfred Barr, Erwin Panofsky, James Johnson Sweeny, occasionally Lewis Mumford, and the art gallery dealer Jerome Klein.  He lectured at both New York University and Columbia until 1936 when he was appointed assistant professor at Columbia.  He also taught at the New School for Social Research beginning in 1936 (to 1952) where his lectures had a profound impact for artists and writers, many of whom would form the core of the abstract expressionist movement. Schapiro was an early exponent of European modernist art, pointing out the intellectual value of Cubism and other movements.  Schapiro retained the socialist influence of his upbringing, contributing to The Marxist Quarterly, The New Masses, The Nation and The Partisan Review.  During these years, his art-historical writing remained relatively small, especially considering his immense reputation.  A 1936 book review on two Vienna-School art historians became a powerful critique of the methodology of the group. While on a European trip, Schapiro visited the famous German literary theorist (and fellow Jew) Walter Benjamin (1892-1940) in Paris 1939, begging him to flee Europe for New York. Schapiro failed and Benjamin committed suicide the following year rather than go to a prison camp. The same year 1939, two of his most seminal articles on Romanesque sculpture appeared, "The Sculpture of Souillac" and "From Mozarabic to Romanesque in Silos," the latter article announcing his emerging socially engaged methodology. In 1950 Samuel Kootz commissioned Schapiro and the critic Clement Greenberg to select art what became a series of modernist exhibitions, titled "Talent" at the Kootz Gallery. These shows gave first-time exposure to Franz Kline, Helen Frankenthaler and Morris Louis. In 1950 and 1952 Schapiro wrote the volumes for van Gogh and Cézanne for the Abrams series on artists.  Though short, they remain rich examples of his analysis. He was appointed full professor at Columbia in 1952. He was named full professor at Columbia in 1965 and Professor Emeritus 1973. In 1987 Schapiro was awarded a MacArthur Foundation Fellow prize.  He also taught at Harvard University as Charles Eliot Norton Lecturer and in Europe at Oxford University and the Collège de France.  Two endowed professorships were created in his honor at Columbia: the Meyer Schapiro Professorship of Art History, created in 1978 with gifts from former students, and the Meyer Schapiro Professorship of Modern Art and Theory created in 1994.  The same year, the medievalist Michael Camille published an article, "How New York Stole the Idea of Romanesque Art': Medieval, Modern and Postmodern in Meyer Schapiro," in the Oxford Art Journal outlining Schapiro's accomplishment.

Schapiro's legacy as a cultivator of artists was a strong as that of art historians. The painter Robert Motherwell claimed to have come to New York in 1940 in order study with Schapiro. During World War II, Schapiro took Ferdinand Leger to the basement of the Pierpont Morgan Library where he showed Leger an 11th-century illumination from the Beatus Apocalypse;  this became important for the symbolism of Leger's later paintings.  In 1952 he convinced a dejected Willem de Kooning that his Woman I was not the failure de Kooning supposed, but the basis of an form which ultimately became de Kooning's mature style.  On Schapiro's 70th birthday in 1974, twelve artists artists issued a set of original graphics to help fund an endowed chair to honor him.  They were: Jasper Johns, Ellsworth Kelly, Alexander Liberman, Stanley William Hayter, Roy Lichtenstein, Andre Masson, Motherwell, Claes Oldenburg, Robert Rauschenberg, Frank Stella, Andy Warhol and Saul Steinberg. Not all approved of Schapiro's modernist work, however. Eunice Lipton described his essays on van Gogh and Cézanne in the Library of Great Painters series as "wild psychoanalytic treks."

Schapiro's influence to the modern approach to art history cannot be understated. Thomas Crow cites Schapiro as the quintessential outsider writing art history. Camille analyzed Schapiro's weaving of folklore, social theory and daily function as core to Schapiro's socialist roots. For most of Schapiro's scholarly life, his reputation was built on his landmark 1929 formal analysis of the sculpture of Moissac, considered by most medievalists as still unsurpast (Cahn, 2008). Schapiro was equally gifted in teaching. His many students included Dorothy Miner [dissertation never completed], David Rosand, Linda Seidel, John H. Plummer, and Albert Elsen. The art critic Barbara Rose made a film about his lectures, La Leçon de Meyer Schapiro, for the 2004 anniversary of his birth.

Home Country: United States

Sources: Kleinbauer, W. Eugene.  Modern Perspectives in Western Art History:  An Anthology of 20th-Century Writings on the Visual Arts.  New York:  Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1971, pp. 4, 11, 30, 53, 70-1 cited, 75, 93, 30 n. 66, 55 n. 117, 56 n. 121; Kleinbauer, W. Eugene.  Research Guide to the History of Western Art.  Sources of Information in the Humanities, no. 2.  Chicago:  American Library Association, 1982, pp. 13, 29, 68, 80, 84, 92, 104-5, 109, 132 -33; Marquis, Alice Goldfarb.  Alfred H. Barr, Jr.: Missionary for the Modern.  Chicago: Contemporary Books, 1989, p. 125; Lipton, Eunice. "Feminism and Impressionism." Art Journal 51, no. 4 (Winter 1992): 99; Camille, Michael. "How New York Stole the Idea of Romanesque Art': Medieval, Modern and Postmodern in Meyer Schapiro." Oxford Art Journal 17 no. 1 (1994): 65-75; Solomon, Deborah. "A Critic Turns 90: Meyer Schapiro." New York Times, August 14, 1994, p. 22; Craven, David. "A Series of Interviews (July 15, 1992-January 22, 1995) Meyer Schapiro, Lillian Milgram Schapiro and David Craven." RES: Anthropology and Aesthetics no. 31 (Spring 1997): 159-168; Crow, Thomas E. "The Intelligence of Art."  The Intelligence of Art. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1999, pp. 6-23; Cahn, Walter. "Schapiro and Focillon." Gesta 41/42 (2002): 129-136; Cahn, Walter. "Romanesque Art, Then and Now: A Personal Reminiscence." in Hourihane, Colum, ed. Romanesque Art and Thought in the Twelfth Century: Essays in Honor of Walter Cahn. University Park, PA: Penn State Press, 2008, p. 36; [obituaries:] New York Times.  March 4, 1996; Columbia University Record 21, no. 19 (March 8, 1996).

Bibliography: [complete bibliography] Meyer Schapiro: the Bibliography. New York: G. Braziller, 1995; [master's thesis:] The Sculptures of Moissac. Columbia, 1926; [dissertation:] The Romanesque Sculpture of Moissac. Columbia University, 1929, published in parts, Art Bulletin 13 no. 3 (September 1931): 249-351, Art Bulletin 13 no. 4 (December 1931): 464-531; "Über den Schematismus in der romanische Kunst." Kritische Berichte zur kunstgeschichtlichen Literatur 1 (1932-1933): 1-21; "The New Viennese School." Art Bulletin 18 (1936): 258-66; "Nature of Abstract Art." Marxist Quarterly 1 (1937): 77-98 [includes a critique of Alfred Barr's Cubism]; "From Mozarabic to Romanesque in Silos." Art Bulletin 21 (1939): 312-74; "The Sculptures of Souillac." In Medieval Studies in Memory of A. Kingsley Porter. Edited by Wilhelm R. W. Koehler. 2 vols. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1939: II: 359-87;   "Courbet and Popular Imagery." Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 4 (1940-41): 164-91;  "Cain's Jaw-Bone that Did the First Murder." Art Bulletin 24 (1942): 205-12; "The Religious Meaning of the Ruthwell Cross." Art Bulletin 26 (1944): 232-45; "' Muscipula Diaboli,' the Symbolism of the Mérode Altarpiece by the Master of Flémalle." Art Bulletin 27 (1945): 182-87; Paul Cézanne. The Library of Great Painters. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1952;  Vincent van Gogh. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1951;  "Rebellion in Art." in America in Crisis: Fourteen Crucial Episodes in American History. Edited by Daniel Aaron. New York: 1952; "On a Painting of Van Gogh," Perspectives U.S.A. 1 (Fall 1952): 141-53; "Style." In, Kroeber Alfred Louis, ed. Anthropology Today. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1953;  "Leonardo and Freud: An Art-Historical Study." Journal of the History of Ideas 17 (1956): 147-78, reprinted in Renaissance Essays. Edited by Paul Kristeller and Philip Paul Wiener. New York: 1968;  "The Bowman and the Bird on the Ruthwell Cross and Other Works: The Interpretation of Secular Themes in Early Medieval Religious Art." Art Bulletin 45 (1963): 351-7; The Parma Ildefonsus: A Romanesque Illuminated Manuscript from Cluny and Related Works. New York: College Art Association of America, 1964;   "Apples of Cezanne: A Essay on the Meaning of Still-Life." Art News Annual 34 (1968): 35-53; "The Still-Life as a Personal Object--A Note on Heidegger and van Gogh." In Simmel, M. L. ed., The Reach of the Mind: Essays in Memory of Kurt Goldstein, 1878-1965. New York: 1968: 203-9;  "On Some Problems in the Semiotics of Visual Art: Field and Vehicle Image Signs." Semiotoca 1 (1969): 223-42, reprinted in Simiolus: Netherlands Quarterly for the History of Art 6 (1972/73): 9-19;  Words and Pictures: On the Literal and Symbolic in the Illustration of a Text. The Hague: Mouton, 1973;   [numerous above essays appear translated into English in the following:]  Romanesque Art.  Selected Papers [of Meyer Schapiro], vol 1. New York: George Braziller, 1977;  Modern Art: 19th and 20th Centuries. Selected Papers [of Meyer Schapiro], vol. 2. New York: George Braziller, 1978;  Late Antique, Early Christian and Medieval Art. Selected Papers [of Meyer Schapiro], vol. 3. New York: George Braziller, 1979.

Subject's name: Meyer Schapiro